Premium Meerschaum Pipes since 1963

   

Table of Contents

  1. What is Meerschaum ?

  2. Where is Meerschaum mined  ?

  3. How is Meerschaum mined ?

  4. Where is Eskisehir ?

  5. Are the  best  quality  of  Meerschaum  in  blocks  really  extracted  in  Eskisehir/Turkey ?

  6. Some Do's and Dont's for Meerschaum smokers.

  7. What are the sizes of Meerschaum pipes ?

  8. What are the levels of making a Meerschaum pipe ?

  9. Is there a Meerschaum festival in Eskisehir/Turkey ?

  10. Did Sherlock Holmes really use Meerschaum pipes?

  11. What are pipe types?

  12. Materials to make a Pipe

  13. What are pipe styles ?

  14. What are pipe Parts ?

  15. About pipe tabacco

  16. About tabacco cuts

  17. Basic blending tabaccos

  18. Taste tabaccos

  19. Oriental spice tabaccos

  20. About pipe accessories

  21. Pipe terms

  22. Shapes of pipes

  23. Cross section of a pipe

  24. Mouth pieces

  25. Finishes

  26. Accessories of a pipe

  27. About Tabocco

  28. Smoking a pipe

  29. History of pipe smoking

  30. Smoking Tips

  31. Infomation about tabaccos

  32. What is the main forms of tobacco habit?


What is Meerschaum ?

‘Meerschaum’ is a a german word describing a soft mineral , which literally means ‘sea foam’.alluding to the belief that it was the compressed whitecaps of waves, just as it is said in mythology for the goddess of beauty - Aphrodite. It is of an opaque white or cr’am color and when first extracted is soft and easily marked,but it hardens on exporuse to the sun or when dried in a warm room or in a furnace. To polish the pipes is very important. The polish must be good quality. Most of the Meerschaum for commercial use is obtained from asia Minor,chiefly from the plains of Eskisehir , Turkey , where it occurs in a small rounded lumps , in alluvial deposits which are extensively worked for its extraction. The exracted lumps are first scraped then dried,again scraped and then polished with wax. The rudely shaped Meerschaum is then taken into workshops,where it is skilfully carved by hand into beautiful pipes,or turned and carved into cigarette and cigar holders and articles of adornment

Meerschaum is one of the major reasons for the fame of Eskisehir. A hydrous magnesium silicate H4Mg2Si3O10 and used for  tobacco pipes.Its high porosity  acts  as  "natural filter"  allows  to  absorb  the  nicotin that is why it takes a rich brown color as used

It contains Magnesium(Mg) and Hydrosilicade in it’s structure.Magnesium doesn't make it strong and the hydrogen and oxygen don't make it cool. It is the crystalline structure; the arrangement of the magnesium, silicon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms in a rigid crystalline structure that makes sepiolite (the clay mineral that is identified by pipe smokers as meerschaum) so good for smoking.Eskisehir has the purest and whitest ,most easy to engrave Meerschaum in the world. Meerschaum deposits of the highest quality are found only in one place in the world - in the small city of Eskisehir in central Turkey.And here the deposits are confined to an area of only 4 square miles.It comes in other masses in various sizes and round. Because it is less dense that the water, it floats on the water.It is soft when newly –extracted and feels like soap but, it hardens overtime. It is also called ‘white gold’ because of it’s color.

Mined with hand tools, and by men trained in this singular family tradition, meerschaum is excavated at depths ranging from 200 to 300 feet. The miners wash the raw meerschaum lumps and sort them into 5 categories according to quality. Each of these 5 categories is further divided into 12 qualities according to size, color porosity and homogeneity of the mineral.

Nearly 300 years ago, the first meerschaum pipe was carved by hand. And today, these unique pipes are still carved by hand. The carver, a craftsman of unique ability and long experience, examines each piece of meerschaum, calculating the lines of cleavage along which it should be split. The split block-meerschaum is soaked in water for 15-30 minutes until the material achieves a cheese-like consistency. Working with the softened material, the carver determines the rough shape of the pipe before the bowl and draft hole are bored. Like all fine hand-crafted articles, no two meerschaums are alike. The carved meerschaum goes into a kiln at high temperature, a process that removes all moisture from the mineral. The shank is threaded and fitted with a stem. After meticulous polishing with the finest grade abrasives, the meerschaum is ready for waxing. Though there are many different wax formulas, beeswax alone yields the rich coloring associated with the finest meerschaums. Melted and then bleached, the beeswax is ready to receive the pipe itself. The subtle differences in color and tone among pipes are intentional, achieved by careful dipping of the pipes a specific number of times.

 

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Where is Meerschaum mined ?

The purest and quality meerschaum blocks are mined in Eskisehir/Turkey. But a lesser quality meerschaum blocks also exits in the a few countries.A pure bone white meerschaum block indicates Turkish origin and top quality; a block containing flecks indicates a lesser grade from Africa's northern coasts, or Tanzania, referred to as African Coral Meerschaum.
 

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How is Meerschaum mined ?

 It is mined  from  200  to  300  feet  under  the  ground  surface, in  irregular   forms  and  sizes. It is fossilized  remains  of  the  sea-animals  that  lived  millions  of  years  ago. Mined with hand tools, and by men trained in this singular family tradition. The pictures can be seen here.

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Where is Eskisehir ?

Eskisehir is at the north west of the center Anatolia of the Turkey.The details of Eskisehir can be seen here.

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Are the best quality of Meerschaum blocks really extracted in Eskisehir/Turkey ?

Yes.Eskisehir has the purest and quality meerschaum blocks of the world.The best meerschaum pipes are made by using this blocks.The  best  quality  of  meerschaum  in  blocks  are  extracted  nowhere  in  the world  but  only  in  Turkey. Whereas  the  lower  qualities  do  not   absorb  the  nicotin  as  the  others ones. Though  the  pressed  meerschaum  do  not  absorb  at  all.About  200  years  ago,  the  first  ever  meerschaum-pipe  was  carved  by  a  certain  shoe-maker  called  Kovacs  in  Budapest.  Before  than  nobody  knew  about  this  mineral,  which  could  be  excellently  carved  to  make  pipes.Eversince  "carving"  has  become almost  an  art.

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Some Do's and Dont's for Meerschaum smokers.

Don't be afraid to handle or hold your meerschaum with clean hands. Remember, you purchased a meerschaum primarily for your smoking pleasure. The "added" pleasure you derive from a meerschaum is watching it color as you smoke it.

The conventional wisdom on this topic is that handling a meerschaum while warm removes the beeswax coating on the pipe, which highlights its coloring. While this is true, only the purist - the smoker far more concerned with the look of his pipe than his own smoking pleasure - need worry about it.

Do take care when removing the stem of your meerschaum by pulling it and twisting it CLOCKWISE while supporting the shank with the fingers. Replace the stem by pushing it and twisting it CLOCKWISE also. Twisting counter-clockwise could unscrew the tenon, and doing so repeatedly can strip out the shank. A little care here will be repaid through a lifetime of smoking pleasure.

Don't tap your meerschaum against a hard surface. If you tap it in your palm, be sure to support the shank firmly with your hand. This is sound advice for briar pipe smokers also. To empty a meerschaum, tip it upside down, and if the ash doesn't fall out on its own use a pipe tool gently to loosen it.

Don't let a cake develop in a meerschaum. Therefore do not worry about "breaking in" your meerschaum. Meerschaum pipes, unlike briars, do not burn and hence need not be protected by a carbon cake. Besides, the meerschaum is softer than the cake and it may crack very easily, since the cake expands with heat faster than the meerschaum does. You can ream it out, but you've got to be very careful in the process--the reamer will remove meerschaum faster than cake, so you've got to watch for spots where you've reamed away the cake and stay away from those.

It is not recommended to use pipe sweeteners in meerschaum pipes. The porous mineral will be soaked with the sweetener causing it to lose its functionality.

Do clean the cake or residue inside the bowl of your meerschaum. Use a sharp-edged, blunt-ended tool. Avoid digging into the heel of the pipe when cleaning the graft hole by not allowing the pipe cleaner (NOT liquid cleaner) to extend too far into the bowl. Do not use alcohol to clean the bowl of a meerschaum pipe. The meerschaum is WET and SOFT in the heel immediately after a smoke.

Smoke your favorite blend in your meerschaum. Each pipe will color differently.

SUMMARY:

- DO NOT drop nor tap it to the hard surfaces
- DO NOT allow a cake to build in the bowl
- DO NOT twist the stem counter-clockwise
- DO NOT take the stem out of a pipe while it is still hot- DO NOT use alcohol to clean
- DO NOT use pipe sweetener.
 

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What are the sizes of Meerschaum pipes ?

Our  all meerschaum pipes are avaliable at four sizes.

  • Small pipes height are about 1.2"-1.6" (30-40 mm)   Long are about 4.8"-5.6"  (120-140mm)
     

  • Medium pipes height are  about 1.4"-2.0" (35-50 mm) Long are  about   4.8"-5.6"  (120-140mm) 
     

  • Large pipes height are about 2.4"-3.0" (60-75mm)  Long are   about  5.6"-6.4"  (140-160mm)
     

  • Saxophone pipes height are about 2.4"-3.5" (60mm-90mm)  Long are about  8.0"-8.8" (200-220mm)

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What are the levels of making a Meerschaum pipe ?

 The meerschaum is in block form and is sorted through to choose the best nodules to carve from. This block has been given a rough shape. 
After the careful selection of the "Stone" the meerschaum is divided into sections to begin the carving process. The meerschaum has natural "Fault lines" where it must be split for carving. 
After the meerschaum is split it is ready to be carved by  skilled craftsmen. There are two choices for work in this part of Turkey. One is to mine Meerschaum and the other is to carve meerschaum. The carvers of meerschaum start directly after school (About 12 years old). These carvers will train under the masters who have been carving for dozens of years. 
The carving process is not complete until the pipes are sanded perfectly. 
The next step in the pipe making process is to dry the meerschaum. When Meerschaum comes out of the red clay in the ground it has a high moisture content. In order to ensure the meerschaum is dry a kiln is used. 
After the meerschaum is totally dry it is boiled in beeeswax to seal the pores in the pipe. The pipes are first prepared by inserting a cork into each hole. Then the pipes are ready for the beeswax. 
Once the beexwax is dry and the pipes are cool the pipes are buffed and fitted with stems. 
Well aside from making the case this pretty much sums up the entire process of Meerschaum Pipe Carving.

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Is there a Meerschaum festival in Eskisehir/Turkey ?

Yes.Every year there is a Meerschaum festival in Eskisehir.Some  of  the  artistic  artwork - pipes  made  for  the  competition  of  "Meerchaum   Festival"  held   at   Eskişehir.The pictures can be seen here.

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Did Sherlock Holmes really use Meerschaum pipes?

Yes!William Gillette is credited with the introduction of the curved, meerschaum pipe to Sherlock Holmes. Gillette found it difficult to deliver his lines on stage using a traditional straight pipe. He found he could hold the curved pipe in his mouth and easily say his lines. The curved pipe has been a part of Holmes image ever since.

Gillette served as the model for Frederick Dorr Steele's illustrations of the Doyle stories in their American publications.The picture can be seen
here.
 

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What are pipe types?

MEERSCHAUM: A German word meaning literally, "sea-foam," alluding to the belief that it was the compressed whitecaps of waves. Meerschaum is a mineral - hydrous silicate of magnesium - one of the most porous substances found in nature. Composed of the fossilized shells of tiny sea creatures that fell to the ocean floor millions of years ago, meerschaum is found in red clay deposits. Meerschaum deposits of the highest quality are found only in one place in the world - Eskisehir, in central Turkey.
BRIAR: This is the closely-grained burl joint between the stem and roots of the White Heath, a tree found on the hillsides of mainly Mediterranean countries. Underground, this burl protects the briar wood, which is tough, close grained, porous, and nearly impervious to heat. Good briar is hard to find. The larger shrubs take a long time to mature...and the older the shrub the better the briar and thus your pipe. The most suitable root may be 80 to 100 years old, and the finest pipe briar may be from a shrub over 200 years old... aged and mellowed by time.
AFRICAN BLOCK MEERSCHAUM: comes from Tanzania, Africa and is usually stained in varying shades of brown, black and yellow.
MISSOURI MEERSCHAUM: The All-American Corncob pipe. It is a length of hollowed-out corncob, usually from a special hybrid variety of corn, with a straight wooden stem and, sometimes, a inexpensive plastic mouthpiece. Some veteran pipe smokers buy corncobs by the dozens, smoke one until it burns out or goes sour, then throw it away and light up another. (If a youngster uses yours to blow soap bubbles, buy another.)
CALABASH: A South African gourd similar to a squash grown specifically for use in pipes. The shape is determined as the gourd grows by placing small blocks under the stem, forcing it into a gentle curve. The mature gourd is cut and dried, then fitted with a cork gasket to receive a meerschaum bowl. The finished pipe offers one of the coolest, driest smokes available. Immortalized by Sherlock Holmes and in Jimmy Durante's signature line - "Good night Mrs. Calabash - wherever you are."
CLAY PIPE: Clay or pottery pipes were very popular in England and in Europe before the discovery of briar. In London coffee houses and clubs, long-stemmed "Church wardens" and "London Straws" were universally accepted. The finest clay for pipes is said to be found in Devon, England.
HOOKAH: Also known as a WATER-PIPE or occasionally HUBBLY-BUBBLY. The Turkish hookah filters the pipe smoke through water (or booz) for extra coolness. Many styles of hookah exist including those with multiple mouth pieces so that several may enjoy the tobacco (or hashish) simultaneously. The tobacco used in the hookah is usually dried whole leaf, soaked and crumbled, or canned, mixed with various herbs and flavors. The very moist tobacco is heaped into the bowl and covered with a small charcoal fire.
OPIUM PIPE: An Oriental water-pipe, normally made of brass with a very tiny bowl used for smoking opium. Opium pipes are frequently seen with 12 or 18 inch long stems and fancy braiding.
CAST IRON: Normally used to carry natural gas.

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Materials to make a Pipe

Different materials can be used to make pipes. There is naturally a wide variety of materials, the most important of which are  meerschaum, briar,corncob and clay.
Meerschaum : Meerschaum pipes were manufactured from the beginning of the 18th century. Nowadays, meerschaum pipes come mainly from Turkey. Meerschaum , a German word meaning literally ‘sea-foam’, is a fairly scarce product actually is a mineral, a rock made up of magnesium which can be found from a depth of approximately 25 metres. Meerschaum’s pipe-making qualities lie in the fact that it is a very lightweight, porous material, and is very soft, making it easy to work with. In addition, a meerschaum pipe changes colour over the years as it is smoked.
Briar :Briar pipes originate from Saint-Claude, where they were made for the first time in 1850. Saint-Claude is still an important world centre for Briar pipes. Briar wood has a number of properties which make it highly suitable for making pipes: it can withstand high temperatures, is exceptionally hard, yet extremely light and looked after, it will last a lifetime. The part of the Erica arborea which is used for making pipes, the briar root, is the part between the roots and the actual trunk of the tree. The tree is found on the hillsides of mainly Mediterranean regions. The older the shrub, the better the briar and thus your pipe. The wood is only suitable to be carved into its final shape after extensive treatment.
Clay :Clay pipes were highly popular in the 19th century, although nowadays they are principally manufactured for decorative purposes. Several different types of clay are frequently mixed to obtain a uniform colour. Clay pipes originate in The Netherlands, Belgium, France and England. One famous example was made in Gouda. Clay pipes also have a significant price advantage over briar and meerschaum pipes. One disadvantage however, is that they are fairly fragile, although this would seem to be a small price to pay for a real old-fashioned pipe smoking experience.
Corncob :The phenomenon of the corncob pipe originates from America. As the name suggests, such pipes are made from a corncob specially cultivated for the purpose, which is dried for approximately 2 years before being treated and coated. One cob normally makes two corncob pipes. What is unusual about this type of pipe is that, in addition to being very light and porous, it can take on a certain flavour and has a relatively short lifetime, although this is offset by very low cost.

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What are pipe styles ?

APPLE: A pipe with a rounded bowl, in the shape of an apple.
BENT: A curved stem pipe.
BILLIARD: A common shape. Straight stem, slightly rounded verticalbowl.
BULLDOG: A pipe with a round bowl and a pointed heel and shank.
CANADIAN: An unbent pipe with a long shank and a straight verticalbowl.
CHURCHWARDEN: A pipe with an extremely long stem.
DUBLIN: An Irish style, shaped after the clay pipe. Straight shank, bowl leans forward slightly.
FREEHAND: Also known as DANISH FREEHAND. An asymmetric, one-of-a-kind shape.
OOM PAUL: A large-boweled bent stemmed pipe name for the Boer leader who smoked this variety.
POKER: A cylindrical bowl and stem, without bend.
PRINCE: A squat, rounded bowl and a stem bent near the mouthpiece.
WOODSTOCK: The same as a DUBLIN with a slightly curved stem.

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What are pipe Parts ?

BOWL: The part of the pipe that holds the tobacco.
HEEL: The base of the inside of the pipe bowl.
SHANK: The part of the pipe that joins the bowl and the stem.
STEM: The part that connects the shank with the bit. Examine it carefully. Its quality, finish and fit will reveal the maker's carelessness or attention to detail.
BIT: The part of the pipe stem that fits in the mouth. Also called the MOUTHPIECE.
BITE-PROOF STEM: A bit designed with a solid center portion at the mouth to prevent the "canine" tooth from punching a hole in it as readily as is done in a standard bit.
AMBEROID STEM: A fusion of Bakelite and pure amber - usually used with meerschaum pipes.
BAKELITE STEM: Trade name for a synthetic resin widely used for lacquers and varnishes and as a plastic. A common material used for the stem, especially of mass produced pipes. An alternative to vulcanite.
AMBER: brittle, feels like glass to the teeth - Usually used with meerschaum pipes.
VULCANITE: A dark-colored variety of India rubber that has been subjected to vulcanization : also called "hard rubber." A common material used for the stem, especially of mass produced pipes.
LUCITE: Trade name for a plastic. A common material used for the stem, especially of mass produced pipes.
HORN STEM: Animal horn - often found on inferior meerschaum pipes
BONE STEM: Animal bone - often found on inferior meerschaum pipes

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About pipe tabacco

TOBACCO: A member of the plant family "Solanaceae" which also includes tomato and potato plants. Around 40 kinds of tobacco exist.
QUALITY: Tobacco is graded by leaf type and quality. There are five grades - choice, fine, good, fair, and low. These are set by the tobacco's uniformity, texture, age, oil, body, coloring, etc.
NICOTIANA: The botanical name for tobacco after Jean Nicot who introduced tobacco into Europe around 1560.
RALEIGH, SIR WALTER: He popularized smoking at Queen Elizabeth's court around the mid 16th century and was believed to be the first to smoke a pipe in England.
TOBAGO: Columbus discovered it in 1498, and according to legend, named it after the shape of a Carib pipe smoked on the island.
 

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About tabacco cuts

FLAKE CUT: Tobacco packaged as large, flat flakes. Must be rubbed out to separate the flakes.
RIBBON CUT: Tobacco cut into long, thin ribbons, though not as long or as fine as SHAG.
CUBE CUT: Tobacco chopped into small square pieces.
SHAG: Tobacco which has been shredded very finely. Renowned as the type of preference for Sherlock Holmes; at that time, shag was considered an inferior grade.
RUBBING OUT: Separating tobacco pieces prior to smoking, by rubbing in the palm of the hand. Must be done with FLAKE or PLUG cut tobaccos.

 

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Basic blending tabaccos

VIRGINIA - red / black / lemon / orange / orange-red The mildest of all blending tobaccos has the highest natural sugar content. Used in virtually all blends as it is a good burner and aids in lighting. It imparts a light sweet taste when used in moderation
BRIGHT - From the Carolinas
BURLEY - "white Burley" - a natural tobacco taste with a soft character that will never "bite."
CAVENDISH - Cavendish is a process of curing and a method of cutting tobacco leaf; the term does not refer to a tobacco, but a type of manufacturing process. The processing and the cut are used to bring out the natural sweet taste that is a characteristic of Virginia tobacco. This process will create a tobacco very light in taste, quite mild and easy to pack. Black - Traditional Navy Cavendish, aged naturally with darkJamaican rum .
 

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Taste tabaccos

PERIQUE - From Louisiana
HAVANA - From Cuba

 

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Oriental spice tabaccos

LATAKIA - From Syria/Cyprus (richly smoked and fermented) Latakia was "discovered" when a bumper crop resulted in surplus, and the excess tobacco was stored in the rafters. The village farmers traditionally used camel dung (or other dung, I suspect) as a source of fuel, and the smoke cured tobacco was revealed the following season. Today, Latakia is smoked over a smoldering fire of aromatic herbs. The camel no longer has to process the herbs first!
DUBEC - From Turkey
XANTHI - From Macedonia
KOMOTINI - From Macedonia
DRAMA - From Macedonia
SERRES - From Macedonia
SAMSUN - From the southern coast of the Black Sea, Turkey
IZMIR - From Western Turkey

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About pipe accessories

PIPE CLEANERS: Indispensable - two types - "soft and fluffy" to dry up moisture or "thin and wiry" to dig out deposits.
LIQUID PIPE CLEANERS: Also called PIPE SWEETENERS, dissolve the gum and tar while leaving a fresh aroma in the bowl, stem and mouthpiece. DO NOT use it for Meerschaum bowls.
SMOKERS COMPANION: Also called MULTI-PURPOSE PIPE TOOL, a spoon, a pick, and a tamper in a metal holder. Usually built like a pocket knife, often accompanied by a "knife blade reamer."
PIPE REAMER: A tool for smoothing out the "cake" and trimming it down to a desired size. Reamers come in a variety of shapes and functionalities.
PIPE RACK: A storage place for your pipes. To most enjoy pipe smoking one needs several pipes to accommodate one's moods and activities.
HUMIDOR: A thing in which to store tobacco. Ideally - cheap and air-tight (try Tupperware) - one places fresh tobacco in it and once sealed, it will maintain the tobacco in a smokable consistency indefinitely. A major alternate use of a humidor is the "re-moistening" of dried out tobacco. For this action one adds a source of moisture to the tobacco in the humidor before sealing.

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Pipe terms

CAKE: A small layer of protective carbon allowed to form and remain in the bowl of a briar pipe. The cake protects the briar from burning but too much cake can split the pipe by causing uneven heating of the bowl.
DOTTLE: Unburned tobacco left in the heel of a pipe.
TONGUE BITE: Irritation of the tongue, usually caused by smoking tobacco that is too wet, or by puffing too hard.
MYOB: Acronym for "mind your own business." Suggested rejoinder to nasty antismokers who bother you for no conceivable reason

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Shapes of pipes

Smoking a pipe provides a man with a delightful ritual. The bowl of a pipe is of great importance; it is responsible for good quality smoke and for the aestethic part of the pipe. When selecting the right pipe bowl, both the eye and the hand are the decisive factors. Not only the size, but also the shape of the bowl is important. They both should fully suit the pipe smoker. Strictly speaking, no two pipes are alike. However, some basic pipe shapes can be given. Nearly all pipes come in three basic configurations: bents, bowed & straights. In addition, a selection of pipe shapes can be distinguished, all of which come in different sizes.Click here for pictures of shapes.

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Cross section of a pipe

The pipe itself is made up of a number of individual components, each with its own function. While pipes come in all shapes and sizes, the parts described below are common to all pipes.  Pipe Section 

 

 

 

 

The mouthpiece:The mouthpiece forms the end part of the pipe. It forms a hermetic seal with the stem, although it can be unscrewed from the latter for cleaning purposes. The shape of the mouthpiece plays a key role in the pipe smoking experience. In general, distinction can be made between two main mouthpiece shapes: tapered models (straight and simple) and saddle-type models (with a triangular notch). All mouthpieces have a flat (‘wide bore’) or round (‘round bore’) opening. In some cases, the mouthpiece is split in two internally; these mouthpieces are referred to as ‘twin-bore’.
The stem: The stem, also referred to as shank, is an extension of the bowl. The bowl and the stem are always made from a single piece. The stem is hollow inside, and leads the smoke from the bowl to the mouthpiece. Some pipes have an opening in the stem, through which ‘false’ air is sucked in, so that the smoke is thinner, making it less sharp.
The bit: The bit is the very tip of the mouthpiece, which is held between the teeth or lips. the shape of the bit largely determines the smoking enjoyment. The most widely-used bit shape is known as the fishtail, which has a flat, right-angled end. The smoke passes through it in a relatively wide stream, directly onto the tongue. In the case of the lip bit, the top part of the mouthpiece is semicircular, while the bottom part is recessed. The opening is located on the top of the semicircular part. The smoke passes through it first onto the palate. Finally, the dental bit has a distinct profile, which gives greater support.
The flue
: The hollow space through which the smoke is led from the bowl via the stem to the mouthpiece is known as the flue. A system can be fitted in the flue as an extra feature to regulate and cool the air flow, or to counteract the moisture which arises when the tobacco is burnt.
The bowl: The bowl is the round, broad part of the pipe, into which the pot is ground. The size of the bowl is closely linked with the type of tobacco to be smoked in it. In general, a large bowl is best suited for smoking tobacco which burns relatively quickly, while smaller bowls are most appropriate for slower-burning tobacco types.
The pot :The pot is the part of the pipe which is filled with tobacco, which is then lit.
The floc :The part of the mouthpiece which screws into the stem is known as the floc. The fact that the floc breaks easily, makes it one of the most vulnerable parts of the pipe.

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Mouth pieces

Though the bit may not seem the most important part of a pipe, it is the only part one holds in the mouth. Therefore, a proper fit is of major importance. Even the smallest defect (too thin, thick, narrow or wide) may result in unpleasant smoking. Mouthpieces come in many materials, of which vulcanite and lucite are the two most frequently used.

Vulcanite: Vulcanite is a dark-coloured variety of Indian rubber which has been subjected to vulcanization. Molded vulcanite mouthpieces have the advantage that they are easy to fit and therefore used on all industrial, machine made pipes. The disadvantage is that vulcanite discolours as a result of the oxidation of the rubber and that this material is not as strong as lucite and can be bitten through.

Lucite:Lucite or acrylic (hard plastic) mouthpieces have become very popular over the last years. This material, that is commonly used for mass produced pipes, does not discolour and is relatively strong. Lucite comes in a full spectrum of colours, ranging from clear to red, green, blue, metallic swirled patterns and deep black.

Amber: Amber, a vulcanised resin, has been used as pipe bit material since the 19th century. It is originally found on the shores of the Baltic Sea. Because of its wonderful colours (ranging from white to yellow to deep red), it is often used for prestigious high grade briars and meerschaum pipes. Amber has a fine structure and as a result, breaks quite easily.

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Finishes

Apart from the shape of the bowl, there are three basic textures. A pipe can have a smooth, sandblast or carved finishing, or a combination of these.

smooth. This finish is mostly used for pipes of which the grain of the wood is the eye-catcher. As these pipes are usually oil-cured, they can be recognised by a glossy waxed surface. These pipes can easily be stained in any colour.
sandblast. Pipes with a sandblast texture, also referred to as shell, rustic, relief or thorn finishes, have a rough surface and are lighter in weight than smooth finished pipes.
carved. To this category belong freeforms, spot carved and sculptured pipes.

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Accessories of a pipe

Cleaners:Generally, a pipe cleaner is a cotton wrapper around a metal core that is being used to clean the draught holes of the stem and mouthpiece of the pipe. Pipe cleaners are indispensable and fortunately inexpensive. The two basic types are soft, fluffy cleaners which dry up any moisture, and thin, wiry cleaners which dig out deposits.
Pipe rack:A pipe rack is a storing place for pipes; it holds the pipes when not in use. Pipe racks vary from those that accommodate one or two to those that hold a  dozen or even more! To enjoy pipe smoking best, one needs several pipes to accommodate one’s moods and activities.
Pipe tamper:A short metal bar with a flat round piece at one end to tamp down the lit tobacco.
Sweeteners:
Liquid pipe cleaners, also known as pipe sweeteners, dissolve the hum and tar while leaving a fresh aroma in the bowl, stem and mouthpiece.
Smokers companion/ Multi purpose pipe tool:The smokers companion, also called a multi purpose tool is the most useful of pipe accessories. It consists of a spoon, a prodder and a tamper in a metal holder. Usually it is built like a pocket knife, often accompanied by a knife blade reamer.
System:A system is an anti-nicotine device; it can be fitted in the flue of the pipe as an extra feature to regulate and cool the air flow, or to counteract the moisture which arises when the tobacco is burnt.

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About Tabocco:


The journey into the world of pipe tobacco is a great adventure, so it is important to make a good start. First, it is important to learn enough of the pipe tobacco jargon. Here below, the different parts of the tobacco plant, the processing methods, the cut and types of tobacco are described. Learning to group tobaccos and recognise the blending components likely to be found in each tobacco, is a big but necessary first step.
The tobacco plant:One of the commonest tobaccos is Virginia tobacco. it is often used in American and European blended cigarettes, and in particular in the so-called ‘English’ Virginian-type cigarettes. The heavier grades are used in various kinds of mixtures for pipe-smoking. Flue-cured tobacco is grown in over seventy countries in the world. The major exporting countries are China, the USA, Brazil, India and Zimbabwe. Approximately 40% of the world’s tobacco comes from the Virginia type plant. A well-grown tobacco plant (also known as the ‘nicotiana tabacum’) reaches a total height of 160-190 cm and will carry approximately 18-22 harvestable leaves.
Flower. The tobacco plant is usually topped two or three months after planting. The flower bud has to be removed before any flower has opened in order to concentrate the plant’s efforts on leaf development. This topping is normally done two or three months after planting.
Tips. The tips are the leaves growing at the top of the tobacco plant. They are relatively narrow and pointed, but are usually heavier-bodied than leaves lower down the plant. Tips represent approximately 18% of the plant’s total weight and contain a nicotine level of 3,5%.
Leaf. These leaves just below the tips are characterised by their relative length, and are firm and heavy-bodied. The nicotine content can range from 3% to 3.5%, while the sugar level is approximately 15%.
Smoking leaf. These leaves grow just above the middle of the stalk. They make up around 7.5% of the plant’s weight. They ripen to a bright orange colour and contain 3% nicotine. The sugar level varies form 12% to 20%.
Cutters. Cutters are the largest leaves on the plant, but account for only 8% of the total weight. They are characterised by their bright, lemon-to-orange colour. The sugar level rises to a peak in these leaves (14% - 22%), and the nicotine content is approximately 2.5%.
Lugs. Lugs are the leaves around the bottom part of the stalk. These leaves are characterised by their small size, thinness and brightness. They make up 13% of the plant’s weight total and the nicotine content is 2.5%. The sugar level is the same as in the smoking leaves (12%-20%).
Priming. Primings, also referred to as sand leaves, are the bottom leaves of the plant. They ripen first and need to be harvested first. They take up 12% of the plant’s weight. Primings contain only 1.5% to 2% nicotine and 5% to 10% sugar.
Roots. Free drainage is vital for the root area. Even short periods of water logging may kill the tobacco plant.
Processing methods:Tobacco is grown on all five Continents. Tropical and subtropical climates are most suitable, yet tobacco also originates in countries with moderate climates; i.e. Poland, Canada, Italy and France. After drying, tobacco can be distinguished into four main groups, from mild to strong.
The Air Cured group. The mildest. These tobaccos, are first dried in open sheds and then fermented, mostly in large stacks. This fermentation creates a chemical reaction in the tobacco leaf, resulting in a soft flavour, and at the same time reducing the nicotine content.
The Flue Cured group. Immediately after harvesting, the tobacco leaves are hung up in closed sheds and dried by circulating heated air. This very fast drying process turns the leaves into a yellow colour. Flue Cured tobaccos are particularly suitable for mixtures.
The Sun Cured group. After harvesting, the tobacco leaves are being strung into garlands and hung against houses or sheds for drying. Most Oriental tobaccos are treated this way. Quite often you will see these garlands when travelling through Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, and in Russia around the Black Sea.
The Fire Cured group. The strongest of full-strength tobaccos. These tobaccos are dried above glowing fires and are fire/ smoke cured to achieve a special flavour. This method is especially practised in the United States (Kentucky Tennessee), Italy, Poland, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Malawi. These strong tobaccos have been named after the Syrian port of Latakia, form where large quantities of fire cured tobaccos are shipped.
Like a composer writing music, a blender must try to get the right tones in perfect harmony. His instruments are the leaf tobaccos on the international commodity markets. Since tobacco is a product of nature, creating and maintaining a blend is quite complicated. Should a crop yield a substandard quality, a replacement must be available, which together with the other leaves will give the same end-product.
Cuts:The cut of the tobacco refers to the width of the strands. In general, the cut ranges from fine to coarse, via medium and large. The basic cuts for pipe tobacco are shag, flake, ribbon and cube.
Shag. In Victorian times, shag used to be very coarse cut, but nowadays it is mainly found in cavendish tobaccos as a finely cut tobacco.
Flake. This is the general term for pressed tobacco. The tobacco is firmly pressed and then cut into thin slices.
Ribbon. Sometimes referred to as long cut. Most English tobaccos are of long cut, because they are blended with a high proportion of Virginia, a long cut tobacco. As Ribbon consists of fine, string-like strips, it is easy to keep lit and burns fast.
Cube. Almost all burley tobaccos are a cube cut. Because of its thickness, a cube cut burns slower.
Types:From a manufacturer’s point of view, there are two basic categories of pipe tobaccos. To the first category belong the more English and Scottish-style cake tobaccos, which are matured in pressed cakes to release the naturally occurring sugars in flue-cured Virginia and the Greek or Turkish oriental leaf. The second category consists of the American-style, cased and flavoured tobaccos, which rely largely on the application of sugar syrups for their flavour.
The Danish and Dutch cavendishes, based historically on Maryland-style tobaccos and possessing a considerable amount of burley, are both flavoured and matured in pressed cakes, and then combined with loose leaf.
Turkish:This tobacco consists of a broad classification of at least a dozen tobaccos that are actually grown in Greece. Turkish leaf is of a high quality that burns well and evenly and has a very aromatic taste. Although it is hardly used in pipe tobaccos, it can be found in some exotic blends.
Burley:Burley is a relatively young tobacco that combines extremely well with a variety of aromatic elements, hence its frequent use in aromatic mixtures. It comes mainly from the US states of Tennessee, Kentucky and Ohio. It is a low-sugar, high nicotine and slow-burning tobacco. It has a rich, nutty flavour. Another air-cured tobacco, often used for mixtures is the Maryland tobacco.
Kentucky:Kentucky takes its name from the US state Kentucky. This fire cured tobacco can be found in the United States, Malawi, Tanzania, Italy, Poland and Indonesia, has a dark brown, nearly black colour and a powerful, smoky taste. Adding just a small percentage of Kentucky to a blend gives the tobacco a very strong character. In general, Kentucky is grown by small farmers working around 20 to 30 acres of land. Crop rotation is practised to prevent the soil from becoming exhausted; only 10 to 20 per cent of the ground is being planted with tobacco each year. The tobacco crop is harvested in late August.
Cavendish:Dutch cavendish is generally a mixture of different component leaves such as Burley, Virginia and Maryland, that have been flavoured and pressed into cakes for maturing. Any tobacco that has been treated in this manner can be called a cavendish. The term cavendish also refers to the cut which is characteristic of matured Virginias and Burley plug. The pressed cakes in which the leaves are aged are cut into bars and then the bars are cross-cut into thick or thin slices called flakes.
Black Cavendish:Most black cavendishes are stoved versions of certain burley tobaccos from Kentucky and Tennessee, as well as some dark air-cured tobaccos from central Virginia. The best have a caramel flavour: mild, sweet, full-flavoured but with a slight aftertaste similar to the taste of toasted marshmallows.
Virginia:This is the world’s best known tobacco. 70% of world’s production is of this type. It takes it name from a British colony in North America, founded by Sir Walter Raleigh, who called the colony ‘Virginia’ in honour of Queen Elizabeth I of England (The Virgin Queen). Nowadays, Virginia tobacco is grown not only in the state of Virginia, but also in other parts of America, Asia, Africa, South America and Europe. Virginias, all characterised by a relatively high sugar content, are often used as the base tobacco in blends, but can be smoked alone as well. Virginias have a subtle sweetness and a delicate fruit-like flavour. They are rather tangy and pleasant on the palate. The best matured Virginias are naturally sweet and clean-smoking tobaccos that fill the mouth with flavour.
Latakia:Named after a small port town in Syria from whence the tobacco was originally shipped, Latakia is grown mainly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus. This sun cured oriental tobacco is ‘smoked’ in small sheds after the harvest, creating the distinctive, spicy and smoky aroma of Latakia.
Perique:Perique was originally used as a semi-finished product in snuff. Nowadays, perique is used to give exclusive mixtures a more refined taste. After the harvest, the leaves are rapidly cured. After this, the leaves mature for 8 to 10 months in huge oaks with prune juices, spices and fruit pulp. The result is a blue-black, highly aromatic tobacco.
Oriental:Oriental tobacco is grown in Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, Syria, the former Yugoslavia, Albania, Romania and southern Russia, and in parts of Italy, Lebanon, Iran, Iraq and Israel. It distinguishes itself from the other types by its small oval leaves, its ochre colour and a sweet, highly aromatic taste.

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Smoking a pipe

Breaking in process: All briar pipes need a breaking in process before being used. The wood should be prepared before it is exposed to the heat and tobacco. First, a layer of carbon has to be applied to the interior walls of the pipe. In order to create this layer, the bowl has to be filled to approximately a quarter of its capacity. Then the pipe can be lighted and smoked slowly. One should avoid too much heat. After four or five of such quarterly filled pipes, the amount of tobacco can gradually be increased. An important rule is to let the pipe cool down before refilling it, to prevent burning the briar. The pipe has been broken in when the layer of carbon is even.
Filling a pipe: When filling a pipe, it is important to do this bit by bit. As the pipe bowl is being filled more and more, the tobacco can be pressed more firmly into the bowl. However, the tobacco should retain its elasticity. When filled too firmly, one needs to draw strongly to keep the pipe lit, whereas a loosely filled pipe burns extreme easily, resulting in a very hot bowl, wet smoking and a sore tongue. The tobacco should burn evenly. When smoking, it is good to tamper the tobacco slightly every now and then. When the pipe goes out, possible deposit should be removed and the pipe can just be relight again!
Maintenance:Taking care of the pipe after use is just as important as knowing how to smoke it. By good maintenance, the pipe will not only look nicer, it will smoke better as well.
A pipe should smoke clean and dry, whereas the pipe tends to smoke wet and bitter when not been given attention to. Finally, maintenance guarantees a longer lifetime of the pipe!
The first thing to do is to gently fluff out all the ash and moist deposits of the tobacco that have accumulated in the bowl. Insert a pipe cleaner into the pipe and let it cool down. After a couple of hours, both the pipe cleaner and the stem can be removed from the pipe, by twisting it gently. The next step is to run the pipe cleaner through the bit and the stem until it comes out clean. The pipe cleaner might be dipped in a pipe cleaning fluid to loosen any deposit. This is however not necessary. After the inside has been cleaned, one may polish the entire pipe with a cotton cloth. Briar pipes can be occasionally polished with a natural oil or wax. This will highlight the lustre of the wood. Now the pipe is ready to be stored in its rack, preferably with the bowl down.
If the pipe has a vulcanite bit, this slowly may turn into a greyish colour as a result of oxidation of the rubber. Keeping the pipe away from direct sunlight will slow down this process. When it does occur, the bit can be polished with special wet sandpaper.
After having smoked the pipe over a period of time, the layer of carbon will slowly begin to build up on the interior of the bowl. This cake helps protect the briar and cool the smoke. However, when this layer becomes thicker than 0,15 - 0,20 cm, it can crack the bowl. At this time, it is best to carefully remove a part of the layer with a knife (or an especially equipped reamer).

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History of pipe smoking

The American Indians believed that a pipe was an excellent medium in avoiding hostilities. Smoking the Pipe of Peace was a well-known ceremony. The use of tobacco can boast a long history. Since the beginning of the 17th century, Holland has been the centre of pipe manufacturers and tobacco blenders. In the past, pipe smoking was not just a matter of opening a pouch of manufactured tobacco. One had to cut up the leaves oneself, or to grind the tobacco with the aid of a mortar and pestle. For buying tobacco, one had to go to the local grocer’s. That was a natural thing to do, since grocers traded in colonial produce.
The European pipes were made of meerschaum, a porous mineral (Balkans and Turkey), porcelain (Mid Europe), or clay (the specific Dutch Gouda pipe). Then, along with the Industrial Revolution, the 19th Century brought a revolution in the manufacture of pipes. The briar pipe has been triumphant. The name has been derived from the French word ‘bruyere’, or heath tree - a low shrub found throughout Europe, though principally around the Mediterranean. The root of the ‘Erica Arborea’ was discovered as being exceptionally suitable for the manufacture of pipes.
Who exactly invented the excellent idea of cutting pipes from this briar wood has, in spite of numerous anecdotes, not been determined. According to the most probable version, a cabinet maker in Chamont (France), bought briar roots in the market, offered to him by a merchant from the Midi. In 1854 he cut pipe bowls out of these, modelled from old porcelain pipes. As a result, up to today pipes are made from the root of this briar shrub. At any rate, it is a known fact that as long ago as 1857 briar pipes were being factory made.

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Smoking Tips

Select a pipe that suits you:

  • The width of the mouth piece should give a satisfactory grip
     

  • The pipe should have the right weight for you.
     

  • For the beginner, a medium sized bowl.

Fill your pipe bit by bit, pressing the tobacco slightly, firmer as the pipe gradually fills up, keeping in mind that the tobacco maintains its resilience. A pipe filled too tightly, will require strong pulling power, and a pipe filled too loosely, will result in fiercely burning tobacco and a hot bowl (A consequence may be wet smoking and an irritated tongue).
Care for an even burning pipe. Bring, after lighting, the curling tobacco back into the bowl, press lightly and, if necessary, relight. Should your pipe be extinguished during smoking, just remove the layer of ash, and relight the tobacco. Tobacco does not quickly lose its flavour. Use long matches so you have plenty of time to light the tobacco evenly.
Smoke in peace and quiet. Forceful and rapid draws cause a restlessness, fast burning pipe that does not taste nearly as good. Pipe smoking should become a natural extension of the breathing rhythm - unhurried and gentle. This might explain the pipe’s mystique. Peace of mind and relaxation are to be transferred to you.
Maintain a coin-thick layer of carbon in the bowl. From its first smoke a briar begins to form a coat of carbon within the bowl which will thicken, almost imperceptibly with each subsequent fill. The carbon should not be more than a coin-thick or otherwise you risk cracking the bowl.
Use pipe cleaners to keep the pipe clean and dry. Put the pipe aside with the stem upwards. When your pipe is empty, it is better to clean it right away with a cleaner, and set is aside for some hours with a cleaner in the stem. In this way much moisture is absorbed by the cleaner. On the other hand the cleaner should not be left permanently in the stem; a pipe benefits from ventilation.
Re-use the pipe only when it is completely dry. This will explain why regular smokers have a selection of pipes at their disposal; they smoke pipes in rotation.
Do not smoke a hot pipe or re-fill one that is still warm. If you need to relight halfway through a pipe, first remove all ash and tap the remaining tobacco down gently and then light up. But do not top up with new, until you have smoked or emptied out the remaining tobacco.
Beyond regular cleaning, a point demanding attention is the occasional need to clear the bowl of excess char. The best method is to use a pipe reamer or smoker’s knife. Insert it in the bowl and turn, slowly, stripping off the layer of carbon to the required depth.
Moisturising a new pipe is strictly speaking not required, yet is not advised against. A pipe can be moisturised by honey, syrup, rum, whisky, or another flavour you might prefer. Let this soak overnight into the pipe.

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Information about tabaccos

The word 'tobacco' is reported to derive from the Spanish 'tobaca' -a term used by the Spanish to describe a Y-shped instrument used by early American Indians to inhale snuff of various types into the nostrils.
Tobacco(picatt) was used by the early American Indians to relieve toothache,to treat skin wound and insect bites,as an antifague agent and as a tooth whitening agent.
Tobacco is used to manufacture the various forms of smoking tobacco,chewing tobacco and tobacco and tobacco snuff is chiefly derived from two species of the plant genus Nicotiana.The two speces are N.tabacum and N.rustica.The addictive property of tobacco is due to one of its component alkaloids,nicotine.Raw and processed tobacco has been shown to contain over 2500 different chemical constituents.

Composition:
Tobacco contains a variety of different chemical of these constituents ,tobacco specific N-nitrosa are the compounds which are thought to be the major Carcinogenic agents in tobacco.
Non-volatile N-nitrosa compounds include N-nitrosonornicotine(NNN),& -(methylnetro-samino),(3 pyridifl), butanone(NNK) and N-nitroso -anatabine(NAT)
The non-volatile N-nitrosa compound are derived from tobacco alkaloids.the a;lkalcid nicotine can give rise toNNN,NNk and NAT although NNN can also derive from the alkaloid nornicotine and NAT from the alkaloid autsbine.Other nitresamines are also found in the processed tobacco.

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What is the main forms of tobacco habit?

The main form of tobacco habit encountered around the world are-

  • Tobacco Smoking

  • Tobacco Chewing

  • Tobacco snuff

    Tobbaco chewing and tobacco snuff uasage generally described as smokeless tobacco.

    Relative % distribution of Tobacco related habits among users in India

Tobacco Habit
Percentage
BIDI
34
CIGARETTES
30
CHEWING TOBACCO
19
HUCKAH
9
CIGARS
5
SNUFF
2

 

Tobacco Smoking :
The smoking of tobacco is a widespread habit practised by people from most culture and socities throughout the worldTobacco constituents including known carcinogens.Tobacco is smoked in one of the three basic ways.

  • as a Cigarette

  • as a cigar

  • in a pipe.

The earlier forms of cigarette probably comprised shredded,crudely cured tobacco wrapped in vegetable or other plant leaves or shredded tobacco tamped inside a hollow piece of reed or bamboo.An example of this basic form of cigarette is the Indian bidi.
A bidi consists of a small quantity of shredded,sun-cured tobacco which is hand rolled into a piece of tendu. These bidis are very popular in the Indian subcontinent. Smoking of bidis may commence at a very early age.Bidi smoking in INDIA is associated with a high rate of oral laikoplakia in users.

Others types of local Cigarette include the Kretek of Indonesia and the so called 'stick' of Papia new Guinea.The Indonesian Kretek is characterized by the addiction of substancial quantities of cloves which produces an aromatic quantity to cigarette smoke.

The stick of new Guinea consists of locally grown tobacco which is shredded and rolled in coarse paper such as newsprint or in a modern cigrette paper.In Indonesia tobacco may be wrapped in corn or in bannana leaves. Manufactured cigrettes comprise fine cut tobacco wrapped in a paper.The tobacco is genreally created with a variety of sugars,flavouring and aromatic substances .

Cigars consists of a filler,made of cigar,tobacco wrapped in a tobacco leaf paper or reconstituded tobacco.Cigars are of various sizes and comprise both the manufactured and the local users in India.In the state of Andhra pradesh a homemade cigar,called a Chuta is made by wrapping cured tobacco in a dried tobacco leaf.Chutta smoking is a very popular habit and may begin in childhood.An unusual feature of chutta sinking is that in some area of thia state it is often smoked with the lighted end inside the mouth - a practise described as reverse smoking.

In Thailand locally produced cigar called Khiyo cigars are encountered.other varities of the cigar include the cigarillo (cigarette like cigar consisting of cigar tobaco wrapped in treated cigarette paper)and the chereet(a small cigar made with heavy -bodied cigar tobacco)

Pipe smoking was prabably the earliest form of tobacco smoking pipes are manufacured from a variety of materials and exhibit varying degree of sophistication and complexity.Modern manufactured European style pipes such as the brter pipe and meerschaum pipe made from wood & clay,respectively are encountered throughout the world.

Other forms of pipe smoking includethe chillum or sulpa in India and Nepal, respectivelythe water-pipe which is used in the Middle-East,Asia & parts of Africa.simple pipes,made from bamboo or other hollow materials.

The water-pipe is known as a hookah,goza,hubble-bubble or sheesha.Pipe tobaccos are of variable composition,but modern manufactred forms usually consists of blendeed tobacco to which sugar & flavouring agents such as liquorice are added.

Chewing tobacco and snuff are the form of smokeless tobacco.
The forms include :
Khaini(India)
Pattiwala tobacco(India)
Maiwpuri tobacco(India)
Mishri(India)
Zarda(India,Arab countries)
Kiwam(India)
Gadakhu(India)
Shammah(Saudia Arabia)
Nass(Iran,central Asia)
Naswar(Afghanistan,Pakistan)

Composition of some of the forms of chewing tobacco:
KHAINI :Powdered tobacco,slaked lime paste mixture occasionally used with areca nut.It is just placed in the mouth.
PATTIWALA TOBACCO : Sun-cured tobacco leaf used with or without lime.
MAIWPURI TOBACCO : Tobacco slacked lime areca nut and spices.
MISHRI : Dark roasted powdered tobacco
ZARDA : Tobacco leaf boiled in water eith lime and spices until evaporation.Residual tobacco is then dried and coloured with vegetable dyes.
KIWAM : Destalked tobacco leaf boiled in water with rose water and spices(eg-Saffron,cardamon,aniseed,musk) used as a
thick paste or if further dried as granules or pills.
GUDAKHU : A paste of powdered tobacco molasses,and others unspecified ingredients.
SHAMMAH : A mixture of powdered tobacco leaf,carbonatee of lime and unspecified ingredients.
NASS : A mixture of tobacco ,ash cotton or sesame oil,lime and sometimes gum.
NASWAR : Afghanistan - A mixture of powdered tobacco ,slacked lime and indigo.
Pakistan - A mixture of sun cured tobacco,ash,slacked lime,water and flavouring agents such as cardamon oil and menthol used as pellets or as powder.
Some of the forms such as Zarda are physically chewed,some are placed in the mouth and not chewed like Khaini, Mishri, Shammah, Nass and Naswar (sometimes also chewed). Two types,namely Mishri and Gudakha are primarely used as tooth cleaning agents in parts of iIndia.The non-chewed tobacco mixtures are generally used by placing a quantity of the material in the labial or buccal sulcus area or along the gum.Users of nass may also place the product under the tongue.Naswar is usually placed in the maindibular sulcus area,but some place it is on the floor of the mouth or the dorsum of the tongue
Chewing Sticks
The habit of chewing pieces of twig obtained from a variety of plant species,for the purpose of tooth cleaning is one which has been carried out for thoudand of years.In different parts of the world chewing sticks assume a variriety of local names,but most share a common design and method of preparation.Most chewing sticks are prepared by taking a piece of twig 6-8 inches long and and chewing one end until it becomes frayed.The brush like frayed end is the applied to the teeth and gums and used in a rubbing-brushing manner for several minutes.
When this procedures is completed the chewing sticks may be left in the mouth while the person goes about performing his/her duty tasks.After being used several times the bristles are cut off fresh bristles prepared by again chewing the end of the stick.Chewing sticks generally derive from the twigs or stem of plant species,but some are obtained from the root or the bark.
A variety of chewing sticks are used among which are:
1)Miswak
2)Fagara Zanithoxyloides

Datu:
Datu can be obtained from the neem,babhul,banyan or the peepal tree.It is widely used among the local people in India.
Uses of Datun:
It is used for massaging the gingina
When chewed it acts as a modified brush.


Ill effects of Datun:
Gingival absorbtion
Hyperpigmentation of the gingina
Hyperkeratinization
Leukoplakea
Degeneration changes are atheroselerosis of the gingina
Calculus formation

MISWAK
Miswak is a twig of the neem tree which is fresh and is to be washed properly.It has ready natural ingredients.It is very juicy in its taste.
 

Composition:
Mismak is a twig of neem tree when chewed it tastes juicy .This juice is bitter,which is actually contains tannic acid.This stimulates salivation and thus there will be a better cleansing effect.The twig has to be chewed in the mouth for about 15-30 minutes.
This bitter juice acts as an anticariogenic agent.Tannic acid acts as an astringent.In Datun Gurectan is a antibacterial powerful tannic acid.
After chewing fibres are used on the tooth surface in the form of a brush.These will be dry after 72 hours and then will be of no use.
 

Drawback:
It cannot clean the interdental areas.
The oral aspects cannot be cleaned.
Fibrous elements of datun atre not stiff and cannot reach in all the sulcus areas.
Force ful widging of these fibres in the interdentel areas can give rise to ginginal and peridontal abscess

SNUFF
Snuff is finally powdered plant material.The principal plant material used to produce snuff is tobacco. Snuff may be used plain or as a compound mixture of powdered tobacco and other agents.It may be used orally or nasally.
 

Modern North American and European snuff are manufactured in two basic forms:
 

A moist type consisting of many finally cut tobacco which is finally pulverized tobacco and used orally or nasally.
The composition and usage form varies in every region,In North America snuff is placed in the lacial or buccal sulcus area and left in position.Sometimes it is placed under the tongue.In the Scandiaanian countries snuff is usually placed in the upper or lower labial sulcus area..In india snuff is used as a tooth cleaning asgent although special forms may be used as a nasal inhalation.
 

In parts of Africa,snuff may be used orally or nasally.Snuff usage is an important custom among the South African who use a snuff composed of tobacco,plant ash and flavouring agents in the form of scented oils and herbs.Oriental snuff is composed of tobacco and a gum made by incinerating a substance called white earth which is then mixed with water to form a paste.The tobacco paste mixture is sun-dried to produce the snuff.

Article by: Dr. Swetha Doshi

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Meerschaum... the best material for pipe..